China’s INDC (Intended Nationally Determined Contribution) excerpt
(…) China has nationally determined its actions by 2030 as follows:
1. To achieve the peaking of carbon dioxide emissions around 2030 and making best efforts to peak early;
2. To lower carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP by 60% to 65% from the 2005 level;
3. To increase the share of non-fossil fuels in primary energy consumption to around 20%; and
4. To increase the forest stock volume by around 4.5 billion cubic meters on the 2005 level.
Comments on action 1
Article Link [Tweeted by New Climate Economy @NewClimateEcon]
“Each year, China adds roughly the total existing electricity capacity of a large U.S. state or a medium EU country.”
The challenge of decoupling increased need for electrification from increase of emissions.
“The direction outlined by the Chinese government — to peak the country’s carbon-dioxide emissions around 2030 or likely earlier — is ground-breaking, both in the scale of proposed emissions reductions, and when viewed within the wider trend of substantial GHG reductions pledged by major economies.’
“According to a London School of Economics study, China’s greenhouse gas emissions likely will peak in 2025.”
“China has a proven track record of meeting its commitments ahead of schedule. “
“The problem is coal, which currently provides more than 70 percent of the energy the fast-developing nation uses. Hundreds of new coal-burning power plants account for how China surpassed the U.S. in the past decade as the world's largest emitter of greenhouse gases. But already several Chinese cities and provinces are experimenting with the kind of capitalist solutions favored by U.S. free marketeers—cap-and-trade programs that in some cases even extend to cover public transportation and buildings themselves.”
“ "China has plans for a national market and one that is the most ambitious in the world," says Barbara Finamore, Asia director at the environmental group Natural Resources Defense Council and longtime Beijing resident. "It would dwarf any other carbon market in the world." “
“China is also expected to include a cap on coal use in the 13th Five-Year Plan, which is scheduled for adoption in March. Coal consumption dropped by 2.9 percent between 2013 and 2014, and there is increasing evidence it will decline further in 2015.”
“Launch a national emissions-trading system by the end of 2016. China already has seven cap-and-trade pilots in its major cities and provinces, making it second only to the EU when it comes to the amount of regulated carbon emissions.”
Comments on action 2
Reduce the economy's carbon intensity by 60 to 65 percent from 2005 levels. China already has made great strides in decoupling emissions from economic growth by reducing carbon intensity by 34 percent from 2005 levels. Between 1975 and 2007, China reduced its carbon-dioxide emissions intensity by 87 percent (PDF) in the transport sector through electrification and other improvements to rail infrastructure.
Comments on action 3
(Increase its non-fossil-fuel share of energy use to around 20 percent by 2030.)
China was the world’s biggest investor in renewable energy in 2013, channeling $54.2 billion into the sector,
"In fact, in 2013 more new clean energy sources were added to the grid in China than fossil fuel-fired power—for the first time ever. China has added several hundred gigawatts-worth of such clean energy—the Three Gorges Dam alone pumps out 22 gigawatts— but hopes to add as much as 1,000 gigawatts of these low-carbon emitting sources by 2030. That would constitute 20 percent of its energy—and roughly the total amount of all electricity produced in the U.S. or all the coal-fired power plants China has built in the last few decades."
Tom L. Friedman, Pulitzer Prize-winning author and US foreign policy columnist for “The New York Times” talks about the agreement at the Charlie Rose show.
"A year-end wrap up with Tom Friedman, Pulitzer Prize-winning author and US foreign policy columnist for 'The New York Times." Air Date 12/18/2014
(around time point 01:00)
"The US-China agreement is a big deal, it is a very very big deal. It is very easy to underestimate these kind of things. When China says that they are undertaking to build up their renewable energies by 2030, by 20%, by roughly by 1000GW…
(pondering) 1000GW…1000GW… That is exactly how much electrical energy capacity we have as a country!"
"They are going to build a United States of renewable energy!
The implications of that in terms of innovation, in terms of scaling, in terms of bringing solar panels down that cost-volume learning curve are huge!"
Comments on action 4
“Increasing forest carbon stocks by 4.5 billion cubic meters implies an increase in forest cover of 50-100 million hectares (124-247 million acres) of forest, or about two to four times the size of the United Kingdom. This amount of forest would create a roughly 1-gigaton carbon sink, equivalent to stopping tropical deforestation for almost a full year, or taking 770 million cars off the road.”
“China increased its tree cover by 49 million hectares (121 million acres) over 20 years, from 1990 to 2010.”
At the press conference for the publication of the 2014 edition of the annual report “China's Policies and Actions on Climate Change” on 25 November 2014, the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) confirmed that a national ETS will be introduced as early as 2016 (release – Chinese).